Communication Acoustics : An Introduction to Speech, Audio and Psychoacoustics.

In
  • (StEdNU)2241723
Edition
  • 1st ed.
Published
  • New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated 2015
Physical description
1 online resource (457 pages)
ISBN
  • 9781118866580
  • 9781118866542
Notes
  • Includes bibliographical references and index.
  • Other format: Also issued online.
  • Reproduction available: Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, MI : ProQuest, 2015. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest affiliated libraries.
  • Originally published: Chichester : John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web.
  • English
  • Available in electronic full text to members of the University via the Library web catalogue.
  • Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Contents
  • Intro -- Communication Acoustics: An Introduction to Speech, Audio, and Psychoacoustics -- Copyright -- Contents -- About the Authors -- Preface -- Preface to the Unfinished Manuscript of the Book -- Introduction -- Chapter 1 How to Study and Develop Communication Acoustics -- 1.1 Domains of Knowledge -- 1.2 Methodology of Research and Development -- 1.3 Systems Approach to Modelling -- 1.4 About the Rest of this Book -- 1.5 Focus of the Book -- 1.6 Intended Audience -- References -- Chapter 2 Physics of Sound -- 2.1 Vibration and Wave Behaviour of Sound -- 2.1.1 From Vibration to Waves -- 2.1.2 A Simple Vibrating System -- 2.1.3 Resonance -- 2.1.4 Complex Mass-Spring Systems -- 2.1.5 Modal Behaviour -- 2.1.6 Waves -- 2.2 Acoustic Measures and Quantities -- 2.2.1 Sound and Voice as Signals -- 2.2.2 Sound Pressure -- 2.2.3 Sound Pressure Level -- 2.2.4 Sound Power -- 2.2.5 Sound Intensity -- 2.2.6 Computation with Amplitude and Level Quantities -- 2.3 Wave Phenomena -- 2.3.1 Spherical Waves -- 2.3.2 Plane Waves and the Wave Field in a Tube -- 2.3.3 Wave Propagation in Solid Materials -- 2.3.4 Reflection, Absorption, and Refraction -- 2.3.5 Scattering and Diffraction -- 2.3.6 Doppler Effect -- 2.4 Sound in Closed Spaces: Acoustics of Rooms and Halls -- 2.4.1 Sound Field in a Room -- 2.4.2 Reverberation -- 2.4.3 Sound Pressure Level in a Room -- 2.4.4 Modal Behaviour of Sound in a Room -- 2.4.5 Computational Modelling of Closed Space Acoustics -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 3 Signal Processing and Signals -- 3.1 Signals -- 3.1.1 Sounds as Signals -- 3.1.2 Typical Signals -- 3.2 Fundamental Concepts of Signal Processing -- 3.2.1 Linear and Time-Invariant Systems -- 3.2.2 Convolution -- 3.2.3 Signal Transforms -- 3.2.4 Fourier Analysis and Synthesis -- 3.2.5 Spectrum Analysis -- 3.2.6 Time-Frequency Representations.
  • 3.2.7 Filter Banks -- 3.2.8 Auto- and Cross-Correlation -- 3.2.9 Cepstrum -- 3.3 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) -- 3.3.1 Sampling and Signal Conversion -- 3.3.2 Z Transform -- 3.3.3 Filters as LTI Systems -- 3.3.4 Digital Filtering -- 3.3.5 Linear Prediction -- 3.3.6 Adaptive Filtering -- 3.4 Hidden Markov Models -- 3.5 Concepts of Intelligent and Learning Systems -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 4 Electroacoustics and Responses of Audio Systems -- 4.1 Electroacoustics -- 4.1.1 Loudspeakers -- 4.1.2 Microphones -- 4.2 Audio System Responses -- 4.2.1 Measurement of System Response -- 4.2.2 Ideal Reproduction of Sound -- 4.2.3 Impulse Response and Magnitude Response -- 4.2.4 Phase Response -- 4.2.5 Non-Linear Distortion -- 4.2.6 Signal-to-Noise Ratio -- 4.3 Response Equalization -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 5 Human Voice -- 5.1 Speech Production -- 5.1.1 Speech Production Mechanism -- 5.1.2 Vocal Folds and Phonation -- 5.1.3 Vocal and Nasal Tract and Articulation -- 5.1.4 Lip Radiation Measurements -- 5.2 Units and Notation of Speech used in Phonetics -- 5.2.1 Vowels -- 5.2.2 Consonants -- 5.2.3 Prosody and Suprasegmental Features -- 5.3 Modelling of Speech Production -- 5.3.1 Glottal Modelling -- 5.3.2 Vocal Tract Modelling -- 5.3.3 Articulatory Synthesis -- 5.3.4 Formant Synthesis -- 5.4 Singing Voice -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 6 Musical Instruments and Sound Synthesis -- 6.1 Acoustic Instruments -- 6.1.1 Types of Musical Instruments -- 6.1.2 Resonators in Instruments -- 6.1.3 Sources of Excitation -- 6.1.4 Controlling the Frequency of Vibration -- 6.1.5 Combining the Excitation and Resonant Structures -- 6.2 Sound Synthesis in Music -- 6.2.1 Envelope of Sounds -- 6.2.2 Synthesis Methods -- 6.2.3 Synthesis of Plucked String Instruments with a One-Dimensional Physical Model.
  • Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 7 Physiology and Anatomy of Hearing -- 7.1 Global Structure of the Ear -- 7.2 External Ear -- 7.3 Middle Ear -- 7.4 Inner Ear -- 7.4.1 Structure of the Cochlea -- 7.4.2 Passive Cochlear Processing -- 7.4.3 Active Function of the Cochlea -- 7.4.4 The Inner Hair Cells -- 7.4.5 Cochlear Non-Linearities -- 7.5 Otoacoustic Emissions -- 7.6 Auditory Nerve -- 7.6.1 Information Transmission using the Firing Rate -- 7.6.2 Phase Locking -- 7.7 Auditory Nervous System -- 7.7.1 Structure of the Auditory Pathway -- 7.7.2 Studying Brain Function -- 7.8 Motivation for Building Computational Models of Hearing -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 8 The Approach and Methodology of Psychoacoustics -- 8.1 Sound Events versus Auditory Events -- 8.2 Psychophysical Functions -- 8.3 Generation of Sound Events -- 8.3.1 Synthesis of Sound Signals -- 8.3.2 Listening Set-up and Conditions -- 8.3.3 Steering Attention to Certain Details of An Auditory Event -- 8.4 Selection of Subjects for Listening Tests -- 8.5 What are We Measuring? -- 8.5.1 Thresholds -- 8.5.2 Scales and Categorization of Percepts -- 8.5.3 Numbering Scales in Listening Tests -- 8.6 Tasks for Subjects -- 8.7 Basic Psychoacoustic Test Methods -- 8.7.1 Method of Constant Stimuli -- 8.7.2 Method of Limits -- 8.7.3 Method of Adjustment -- 8.7.4 Method of Tracking -- 8.7.5 Direct Scaling Methods -- 8.7.6 Adaptive Staircase Methods -- 8.8 Descriptive Sensory Analysis -- 8.8.1 Verbal Elicitation -- 8.8.2 Non-Verbal Elicitation -- 8.8.3 Indirect Elicitation -- 8.9 Psychoacoustic Tests from the Point of View of Statistics -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 9 Basic Function of Hearing -- 9.1 Effective Hearing Area -- 9.1.1 Equal Loudness Curves -- 9.1.2 Sound Level and its Measurement -- 9.2 Spectral Masking.
  • 9.2.1 Masking by Noise -- 9.2.2 Masking by Pure Tones -- 9.2.3 Masking by Complex Tones -- 9.2.4 Other Masking Phenomena -- 9.3 Temporal Masking -- 9.4 Frequency Selectivity of Hearing -- 9.4.1 Psychoacoustic Tuning Curves -- 9.4.2 ERB Bandwidths -- 9.4.3 Bark, ERB, and Greenwood Scales -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 10 Basic Psychoacoustic Quantities -- 10.1 Pitch -- 10.1.1 Pitch Strength and Frequency Range -- 10.1.2 JND of Pitch -- 10.1.3 Pitch Perception versus Duration of Sound -- 10.1.4 Mel Scale -- 10.1.5 Logarithmic Pitch Scale and Musical Scale -- 10.1.6 Detection Threshold of Pitch Change and Frequency Modulation -- 10.1.7 Pitch of Coloured Noise -- 10.1.8 Repetition Pitch -- 10.1.9 Virtual Pitch -- 10.1.10 Pitch of Non-Harmonic Complex Sounds -- 10.1.11 Pitch Theories -- 10.1.12 Absolute Pitch -- 10.2 Loudness -- 10.2.1 Loudness Determination Experiments -- 10.2.2 Loudness Level -- 10.2.3 Loudness of a Pure Tone -- 10.2.4 Loudness of Broadband Signals -- 10.2.5 Excitation Pattern, Specific Loudness, and Loudness -- 10.2.6 Difference Threshold of Loudness -- 10.2.7 Loudness versus Duration of Sound -- 10.3 Timbre -- 10.3.1 Timbre of Steady-State Sounds -- 10.3.2 Timbre of Sound Including Modulations -- 10.4 Subjective Duration of Sound -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 11 Further Analysis in Hearing -- 11.1 Sharpness -- 11.2 Detection of Modulation and Sound Onset -- 11.2.1 Fluctuation Strength -- 11.2.2 Impulsiveness -- 11.3 Roughness -- 11.4 Tonality -- 11.5 Discrimination of Changes in Signal Magnitude and Phase Spectra -- 11.5.1 Adaptation to the Magnitude Spectrum -- 11.5.2 Perception of Phase and Time Differences -- 11.6 Psychoacoustic Concepts and Music -- 11.6.1 Sensory Consonance and Dissonance -- 11.6.2 Intervals, Scales, and Tuning in Music -- 11.6.3 Rhythm, Tempo, Bar, and Measure.
  • 11.7 Perceptual Organization of Sound -- 11.7.1 Segregation of Sound Sources -- 11.7.2 Sound Streaming and Auditory Scene Analysis -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 12 Spatial Hearing -- 12.1 Concepts and Definitions for Spatial Hearing -- 12.1.1 Basic Concepts -- 12.1.2 Coordinate Systems for Spatial Hearing -- 12.2 Head-Related Acoustics -- 12.3 Localization Cues -- 12.3.1 Interaural Time Difference -- 12.3.2 Interaural Level Difference -- 12.3.3 Interaural Coherence -- 12.3.4 Cues to Resolve the Direction on the Cone of Confusion -- 12.3.5 Interaction Between Spatial Hearing and Vision -- 12.4 Localization Accuracy -- 12.4.1 Localization in the Horizontal Plane -- 12.4.2 Localization in the Median Plane -- 12.4.3 3D Localization -- 12.4.4 Perception of the Distribution of a Spatially Extended Source -- 12.5 Directional Hearing in Enclosed Spaces -- 12.5.1 Precedence Effect -- 12.5.2 Adaptation to the Room Effect in Localization -- 12.6 Binaural Advantages in Timbre Perception -- 12.6.1 Binaural Detection and Unmasking -- 12.6.2 Binaural Decolouration -- 12.7 Perception of Source Distance -- 12.7.1 Cues for Distance Perception -- 12.7.2 Accuracy of Distance Perception -- Summary -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 13 Auditory Modelling -- 13.1 Simple Psychoacoustic Modelling with DFT -- 13.1.1 Computation of the Auditory Spectrum through DFT -- 13.2 Filter Bank Models -- 13.2.1 Modelling the Outer and Middle Ear -- 13.2.2 Gammatone Filter Bank and Auditory Nerve Responses -- 13.2.3 Level-Dependent Filter Banks -- 13.2.4 Envelope Detection and Temporal Dynamics -- 13.3 Cochlear Models -- 13.3.1 Basilar Membrane Models -- 13.3.2 Hair-Cell Models -- 13.4 Modelling of Higher-Level Systemic Properties -- 13.4.1 Analysis of Pitch and Periodicity -- 13.4.2 Modelling of Loudness Perception -- 13.5 Models of Spatial Hearing.
  • 13.5.1 Delay-Network-Based Models of Binaural Hearing.
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Summary

  • In communication acoustics, the communication channel consists of a sound source, a channel (acoustic and/or electric) and finally the receiver: the human auditory system, a complex and intricate system that shapes the way sound is heard. Thus, when developing techniques in communication acoustics, such as in speech, audio and aided hearing, it is important to understand the time-frequency-space resolution of hearing. This book facilitates the reader's understanding and development of speech and audio techniques based on our knowledge of the auditory perceptual mechanisms by introducing the physical, signal-processing and psychophysical background to communication acoustics. It then provides a detailed explanation of sound technologies where a human listener is involved, including audio and speech techniques, sound quality measurement, hearing aids and audiology. Key features: Explains perceptually-based audio: the authors take a detailed but accessible engineering perspective on sound and hearing with a focus on the human place in the audio communications signal chain, from psychoacoustics and audiology to optimizing digital signal processing for human listening. Presents a wide overview of speech, from the human production of speech sounds and basics of phonetics to major speech technologies, recognition and synthesis of speech and methods for speech quality evaluation. Includes MATLAB examples that serve as an excellent basis for the reader's own investigations into communication acoustics interaction schemes which intuitively combine touch, vision and voice for lifelike interactions.

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