Gimson's pronunciation of English / [revised by] Alan Cruttenden.

Author
Other titles
  • Pronunciation of English
  • VLEbooks.
Edition
  • 8th ed.
Published
  • London ; New York : Routledge 2014
Physical description
1 online resource (408 p.)
ISBN
  • 1-134-66941-0
  • 1-4441-8310-9
  • 0-203-78496-0
Notes
  • Rev. ed. of: An introduction to the pronunciation of English. 4th ed. 1989.
  • Includes bibliographical references and index.
  • Other format: Also available in printed form.
  • Reproduction available: Electronic reproduction. Dawson Books. Mode of access: World Wide Web.
  • Mode of access: World Wide Web.
  • English
  • Made available through dawsonera.
  • Description based on print version record.
Audience
  • Specialized.
Contents
  • Cover; Half Title; Title Page; Copyright Page; Table of Contents; Foreword to the First Edition (1962); Foreword to the Eighth Edition (2014); List of figures; List of tables; List of text boxes; List of phonetic symbols and signs and abbreviations; Part I Language and speech; 1 Introduction; 1.1 Language and linguistics; 1.1.1 Phonetics as Part of linguistics; 1.1.2 Phonetics, phonology and phonemics; 1.1.3 Pronunciation and spelling; 1.2 Change and variation; 1.3 Learning; 1.3.1 Functional load, phonetic cues and redundancy; 1.3.2 Acquiring English as an L1
  • 1.3.3 Acquiring English as an additional language2 The production of speech: the physiological aspect; 2.1 The speech chain; 2.2 The speech mechanism; 2.2.1 Sources of energy_the lungs; 2.2.2 The larynx and the vocal cords; 2.2.3 The resonating cavities; 2.2.3.1 The pharynx; 2.2.3.2 The mouth; 3 The sounds of speech: the acoustic and auditory aspects; 3.1 Sound quality; 3.2 The acoustic spectrum; 3.2.1 Fundamental frequency: pitch; 3.2.2 Intensity: loudness; 3.2.3 Duration: length; 3.2.4 'Stress'; 3.3 Hearing; 4 The description and classification of speech sounds; 4.1 Phonetic description
  • 4.2 Vowel and consonant4.3 Consonants; 4.3.1 Egressive pulmonic consonants; 4.3.2 Voicing; 4.3.3 Place of articulation; 4.3.4 Manner of articulation; 4.3.5 Obstruents and sonorants; 4.3.6 Fortis and lenis; 4.3.7 Classification of consonants; 4.3.8 Ingressive pulmonic consonants; 4.3.9 Egressive glottalic consonants; 4.3.10 Ingressive glottalic consonants; 4.3.11 Ingressive velaric consonants; 4.4 Vowels; 4.4.1 Difficulties of description; 4.4.2 Cardinal Vowels; 4.4.3 Nasality; 4.4.4 Relatively pure vowels vs gliding vowels; 4.4.5 Articulatory classification of vowels; 5 Sounds in language
  • 5.1 Speech sounds and linguistic units5.2 The linguistic hierarchy; 5.3 Phonemes; 5.3.1 Diversity of phonemic solutions; 5.3.2 Distinctive features; 5.3.3 Allophones; 5.3.4 Neutralisation; 5.3.5 Phonemic systems; 5.4 Transcription; 5.5 Syllables; 5.5.1 The sonority hierarchy; 5.5.2 Syllable constituency; 5.5.3 Syllable boundaries; 5.6 Vowel and consonant; 5.7 Prosodic features; 5.8 Paralinguistic and extralinguistic features; Part II The sounds of English; 6 The historical background; 6.1 Evidence for phonetic reconstruction and change; 6.1.1 Latin and Runic as base; 6.1.2 Intervening values
  • 6.1.3 Rhymes and metre6.1.4 Direct evidence; 6.2 Sound change; 6.2.1 Phonemic change; 6.2.2 Contextual change; 6.2.3 Lexical change; 6.2.4 Foreign imports; 6.2.5 Accentual change; 6.2.6 The influence of spelling; 6.3 Old English (OE); 6.3.1 Classical Old English sound system; 6.4 Middle English (ME); 6.4.1 Late Middle English sound system; 6.5 Early Modern English (eModE); 6.5.1 Early Modern English sound system; 6.6 Towards current General British (GB); 6.6.1 Direct evidence; 6.6.2 Changes since Shakespeare; 6.7 Overview of changes from OE to current General British (GB)
  • 6.7.1 Categorical change, gradual change and variation
Other names
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Genre
  • Bibliography
  • Electronic books.
  • Illustrated
  • text
Language
  • English
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Contents
  • Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Language and linguistics -- 1.1.1. Phonetics as part of linguistics -- 1.1.2. Phonetics, phonology and phonemics -- 1.1.3. Pronunciation and spelling -- 1.2. Change and variation -- 1.3. Learning -- 1.3.1. Functional load, phonetic cues and redundancy -- 1.3.2. Acquiring English as an L1 -- 1.3.3. Acquiring English as an additional language -- 2. The production of speech: the physiological aspect -- 2.1. The speech chain -- 2.2. The speech mechanism -- 2.2.1. Sources of energy-the lungs -- 2.2.2. The larynx and the vocal cords -- 2.2.3. The resonating cavities -- 2.2.3.1. The pharynx -- 2.2.3.2. The mouth -- 3. The sounds of speech: the acoustic and auditory aspects -- 3.1. Sound quality -- 3.2. The acoustic spectrum -- 3.2.1. Fundamental frequency: pitch -- 3.2.2. Intensity: loudness -- 3.2.3. Duration: length -- 3.2.4. 'Stress' -- 3.3. Hearing -- 4. The description and classification of speech sounds -- 4.1. Phonetic description -- 4.2. Vowel and consonant -- 4.3. Consonants -- 4.3.1. Egressive pulmonic consonants -- 4.3.2. Voicing -- 4.3.3. Place of articulation -- 4.3.4. Manner of articulation -- 4.3.5. Obstruents and sonorants -- 4.3.6. Fortis and lenis -- 4.3.7. Classification of consonants -- 4.3.8. Ingressive pulmonic consonants -- 4.3.9. Egressive glottalic consonants -- 4.3.10. Ingressive glottalic consonants -- 4.3.11. Ingressive velaric consonants -- 4.4. Vowels -- 4.4.1. Difficulties of description -- 4.4.2. Cardinal Vowels -- 4.4.3. Nasality -- 4.4.4. Relatively pure vowels vs gliding vowels -- 4.4.5. Articulatory classification of vowels -- 5. Sounds in language -- 5.1. Speech sounds and linguistic units -- 5.2. The linguistic 'hierarchy -- 5.3. Phonemes -- 5.3.1. Diversity of phonemic solutions -- 5.3.2. Distinctive features -- 5.3.3. Allophones -- 5.3.4. Neutralisation -- 5.3.5. Phonemic systems -- 5.4. Transcription -- 5.5. Syllables -- 5.5.1. The sonority hierarchy -- 5.5.2. Syllable constituency -- 5.5.3. Syllable boundaries -- 5.6. Vowel and consonant -- 5.7. Prosodic features -- 5.8. Paralinguistic and extralinguistic features -- 6. The historical background -- 6.1. Evidence for phonetic reconstruction and change -- 6.1.1. Latin and Runic as base -- 6.1.2. Intervening values -- 6.1.3. Rhymes and metre -- 6.1.4. Direct evidence -- 6.2. Sound change -- 6.2.1. Phonemic change -- 6.2.2. Contextual change -- 6.2.3. Lexical change -- 6.2.4. Foreign imports -- 6.2.5. Accentual change -- 6.2.6. The influence of spelling -- 6.3. Old English (OE) -- 6.3.1. Classical Old English sound system -- 6.4. Middle English (ME) -- 6.4.1. Late Middle English sound system -- 6.5. Early Modern English (eMod, E) -- 6.5.1. Early Modern English sound system -- 6.6. Towards current General British (GB) -- 6.6.1. Direct evidence -- 6.6.2. Chalges since Shakespeare -- 6.7. Overview of changes from OE to current General British (GB) -- 6.7.1. Categorical change, gradual change and variation -- 6.7.2. Vowel changes -- 6.7.3. Consonantal changes -- 7. Standard and regional accents -- 7.1. The emergence of a standard -- 7.2. Early uses of 'received' and 'received pronunciation' -- 7.3. Daniel Jones, the BBC, RP and GB -- 7.4. 'Modern RP' -- 7.5. Other names for RP -- 7.6. General British (GB) -- 7.7. Conspicuous General British (CGB) -- 7.8. Regional General British (RGB) -- 7.9. GB and foreign learners -- 7.10. Recent changes in GB -- 7.10.1. Changes almost complete -- 7.10.2. Changes well established -- 7.10.3. Recent trends -- 7.11. Systems and standards other than GB and their influence on RGB -- 7.12. Comparing systems of pronunciation -- 7.12.1. General American (GA) -- 7.12.2. Standard Scottish English (SSE) -- 7.12.3. London English, Estuary English (EE) and Multicultural London English (MLE) -- 7.12.4. General Northern English (GNE) -- 7.12.5. Australian English (ANE) -- 7.12.6. Caribbean English -- 8. The English vowels -- 8.1. The distinctive vowels -- 8.2. Vowel glides with preceding /j, w/ -- 8.3. Glides to -- 8.4. Vowel length -- 8.4.1. Phonetic relationships -- 8.4.2. Morphophonemic alternations -- 8.5. Transcriptions of English vowels -- 8.6. Acoustics of GB vowels -- 8.7. Learning of vowels -- 8.7.1. Acquisition of vowels by native learners -- 8.7.2. Advice to foreign learners -- 8.8. Descriptions of the vowels -- 8.9. (Relatively) pure vowels -- 8.9.1. /i:/ -- 8.9.2. /i/ -- 8.9.3. /e/ -- 8.9.4. / :/ -- 8.9.5. /a/ -- 8.9.6. /^/ -- 8.9.7. /a:/ -- 8.9.11. /u:/ -- 8.9.12. /3:/ -- 8.10. Diphthongal vowel glides -- 8.10.1. /ei/ -- 8.10.2. /ail -- 8.11. Diphthongs + [a] -- 8.12. Centring diphthongs -- 8.12.1. ha/ -- 8.12.2. /oat -- 8.13. Vowels in syllables without primary accent -- 8.14. The frequency of occurrence of GB vowels -- 9. The English consonants -- 9.1. The distinctive consonants -- Class A: Obstruents -- 9.2. Plosives -- 9.2.1. The phonetic features of English plosives -- 9.2.2. Acoustic features of Eqglish plosives -- 9.2.3. Acquisition of plosives by native learners -- 9.2.4. The release stage of English plosives -- 9.2.5. Bilabial plosives /p, b/ -- 9.2.6. Alveolar plosives /t, d/ -- 9.2.7. Velar plosives /k, g/ -- 9.2.8. Glottal plosive -- 9.3. Affricates -- 9.3.1. Palato-alveolar affricates /t[ƒ], d3/ -- 9.4. Fricatives -- 9.4.1. Acoustic features of English fricatives -- 9.4.2. Acquisition of fricatives by native learners -- 9.4.3. Labiodental fricatives /f, v/ -- 9.4.4. Dental fricatives /θ, ð/ -- 9.4.5. Alveolar fricatives /s, z/ -- 9.4.6. Palato-alveolar fricatives /[ƒ],3/ -- 9.4.7. Glottal fricative /h/ -- 9.5. Voiced and voiceless as phonological categories -- Class B: Sonorants -- 9.6. Nasals -- 9.6.1. Bilabial nasal /m/ -- 9.6.2. Alveolar nasal /n/ -- 9.6.3. Velar nasal /η/ -- 9.7. Oral approximants -- 9.7.1. Lateral approximant /l/ -- 9.7.2. Post-alveolar approximant /r/ -- 9.7.3. Palatal and labial-velar approximants (or semi-vowels) -- 9.7.4. Unrounded palatal approximant /j/ -- 9.7.5. Rounded labial-velar "approximant/w/ -- 9.8. The frequency of occurrence of GB consonants -- 10. Words -- 10.1. Accent -- 10.2. Accent and prominence -- 10.3. Word accentual patterns -- 10.3.1. Roots -- 10.3.2. Suffixes -- 10.3.3. Prefixes -- 10.3.4. Secondary accent -- 10.3.5. Compounds -- 10.4. Word accentual instability -- 10.5. Distinctive word accentual patterns -- 10.6. Acquisition of word accent by native learners -- 10.7. Word accent-advice to foreign learners -- 10.8. Elision and epenthesis -- 10.9. Variability in the phonemic structure of words -- 10.10. Phonotactics -- 10.10.1. Word-initial phoneme sequences -- 10.10.2. Word-final phoneme sequences -- 10.10.3. Word-medial syllable division -- 10.10.4. Inflexional suffix formation -- 10.10.5. Acquisition of phonotactics by native learners -- 10.10.6. Phonotactics-advice to foreign learners -- 10.11. Consonant harmony in the word structure of native learners -- 11. Connected speech -- 11.1. Accent -- 11.2. Prominence, accent and rhythm -- 11.3. Weak forms -- 11.4. Acquisition of rhythm and weak forms by native learners -- 11.5. Rhythm and weak forms-advice to foreign learners -- 11.6. Intonation -- 11.6.1. The forms of intonation -- 11.6.1.1. Intonational phrases -- 11.6.1.2. Primary accents -- 11.6.1.3. Types of nuclear tone -- 11.6.1.4. Secondary accents -- 11.6.1.5. The pitch of unaccented syllables -- 11.6.2. The functions of intonation -- 11.6.2.1. Intonational phrasing -- 11.6.2.2. Primary accents and new information -- 11.6.2.3. Primary accents on function words -- 11.6.2.4. Focusing adverbs -- 11.6.2.5. Some special accentings -- 11.6.2.6. The meanings of tones -- 11.6.2.7. The use of secondary accents -- 11.6.3. Regional variation in intonation -- 11.6.4. Pitch range -- 11.6.5. Intonation and punctuation -- 11.6.6. Acquisition of intonation by native learners -- 11.6.7. Intonation-advice to foreign learners -- 11.7. Hesitations -- 11.8. Voice quality -- 12. Words in connected speech -- 12.1. Citation forms and connected speech -- 12.2. Neutralisation of weak forms -- 12.3. Variation in the accentual pattern of words -- 12.4. Phonetic variations within words and at boundaries -- 12.4.1. Allophonic variations -- 12.4.2. Phonemic variations -- 12.4.3. Voiced/voiceless variations -- 12.4.4. Nasality and labialisation -- 12.4.5. Variations of place -- 12.4.6. Elision -- 12.4.7. Liaison -- 12.4.8. Juncture -- 12.5. Stylistic variation -- 12.6. Frequency of occurrence bf monosyllabic and polysyllabic words -- 12.7. Advice to foreign learners -- 13. Teaching and learning the pronunciation of English as an additional language -- 13.1. The place of pronunciation -- 13.2. Models and targets -- 13.2.1. Native speaker targets -- 13.2.2. GB and Regional GBs -- 13.2.3. Amalgam English and International English -- 13.3. GB and Regional GBs: priorities and tolerances -- 13.3.1. Consonants -- 13.3.1.1. Plosives -- 13.3.1.2. Fricatives -- 13.3.1.3. Affricates -- 13.3.1.4. Approximants -- 13.3.1.5. Nasals -- 13.3.1.6. Consonant clusters -- 13.3.2. Vowels -- 13.3.3. Accent and rhythm -- 13.3.4. Sounds in connected speech -- 13.3.5. Intonation

Summary

  • Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB. </

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